Tiny Fish Use Bacteria to Glow in the Dark | National Geographic

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+79 -523
00:02
- I was in the Solomon Islands on a
00:03
National Geographic expedition. We were working
00:06
in a shallow reef and we had a big blue light
00:10
that we were filming fluorescent corals.
00:13
One of the safety divers, Brendan Phillips,
00:15
came up to me and just started tugging on my
00:18
camera and basically just gave me
00:20
the message, you know, follow me.
00:22
So I turn off my lights, I followed him
00:25
for several hundred meters in the dark.
00:28
Suddenly, I see why he pulled me there.
00:31
There are literally thousands of blue,
00:35
blinking bioluminescent lights.
00:38
And they were coming together, and they were joining,
00:41
and there would be circles of them,
00:42
and it was almost like a blue, bioluminescent
00:45
brick road just descending down the reef, making
00:48
all these shapes. It's the closest thing I've
00:51
ever had to an Avatar moment.
00:55
This is the largest aggregation of Flashlight Fish
00:59
that I believe humans have ever come across.
01:02
These animals, they don't even come out when the
01:05
moon is out. They're so sensitive to light.
01:08
Because they're so easily gobbled up by a bigger predator.
01:16
So it has this subocular bioluminescent organ
01:19
under its eye, and it grows, like a garden,
01:23
these bioluminescent bacteria.
01:25
And it grows them in these tubes and it even
01:27
projects the light outward. It's even grown this
01:30
vasculature to feed, to pump oxygen, to keep
01:34
these bioluminescent bacteria glowing bright.
01:38
One thing that they do is when they're actually eating,
01:41
they will keep their light on so they can see the food.
01:44
So they're very visual creatures.
01:46
And they're using their light to feed.
01:49
But when they're not feeding, they're using
01:51
their light to be able to move in a school.
01:56
A quarter of all fish species,
01:59
some time in their life, they school.
02:01
And there's all kinds of benefits to schooling.
02:03
There's safety in numbers, and it makes it harder
02:07
for a predator to really zone in on one specific fish.
02:11
What's unique about these animals is
02:13
the relationship they have with this bioluminescent
02:16
bacteria that they harvest in their eye.
02:18
Only nine species have this ability.
02:20
We do know that they do something called a blink and run.
02:23
When they want to evade a predator, they will
02:24
start swimming in one direction, blink,
02:26
and then immediately turn in the other direction.
02:28
So a predator trying to follow in the dark will lose it.
02:32
Recording this and proving this opens up the
02:35
possibility that the deep sea is filled
02:39
with billions of bioluminescent schooling fish
02:44
and us humans have just not seen this yet,
02:47
because we're not in the deep sea
02:49
with all our lights off.
Key Vocabulary:
1) an expedition: [명사] 탐험, 원정
2) a reef: [명사] 암초
3) fluorescent: [형용사] 물질이 형광성의
4) coral: [명사] 산호
5) to tug: [동사] ~ (at/on) sth (세게, 흔히 여러 번) 잡아당기다
6) literally: [부사] 문자[말] 그대로
7) to blink: [자동사] (불빛이[을]) 깜박거리다[깜박이다]
8) bioluminescent: [형용사] 생물 발광(發光)의, 생물 발광(發光)하는
9) descending: [형용사] 내려가는, 강하하는, 하향의(opp. ascending)
10) an aggregation: [명사] 집합, 집성(集成), 집적(集積)
11) to gobble: [동사] ~ sth (up/down) 게걸스럽게 먹다
12) subocular: [형용사] 눈밑의.
13) vasculature: [명사] (해부) 맥관 구조
14)
a) a school: [명사] (물고기·고래 등의) 떼
b) to school: [동사] <물고기 등이> 떼를 짓다
15) to zone in: [동사] ~에 모든 주의(관심)를 집중하다
16) unique: [형용사] 유일무이한, 독특한
17) to harvest: [동사] 수확하다
18) an ability: [명사] ~ to do sth (~을) 할 수 있음, 능력
19) to evade: [동사] (어떤 일이나 사람을) 피하다[모면하다
20) a predator: [명사] 포식자, 포식 동물

Expressions:
1) There's safety in numbers.
수가 많은 [여러 사람들이 함께 있는] 것이 안전하다

2) Open up the possibilities of...
...의 가능성을 개척하다.

Further reading:
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2019/08/flashlight-fish-glow-blue-for-schooling/
00:02
- I was in the Solomon Islands on a
00:03
National Geographic expedition. We were working
00:06
in a shallow reef and we had a big blue light
00:10
that we were filming fluorescent corals.
00:13
One of the safety divers, Brendan Phillips,
00:15
came up to me and just started tugging on my
00:18
camera and basically just gave me
00:20
the message, you know, follow me.
00:22
So I turn off my lights, I followed him
00:25
for several hundred meters in the dark.
00:28
Suddenly, I see why he pulled me there.
00:31
There are literally thousands of blue,
00:35
blinking bioluminescent lights.
00:38
And they were coming together, and they were joining,
00:41
and there would be circles of them,
00:42
and it was almost like a blue, bioluminescent
00:45
brick road just descending down the reef, making
00:48
all these shapes. It's the closest thing I've
00:51
ever had to an Avatar moment.
00:55
This is the largest aggregation of Flashlight Fish
00:59
that I believe humans have ever come across.
01:02
These animals, they don't even come out when the
01:05
moon is out. They're so sensitive to light.
01:08
Because they're so easily gobbled up by a bigger predator.
01:16
So it has this subocular bioluminescent organ
01:19
under its eye, and it grows, like a garden,
01:23
these bioluminescent bacteria.
01:25
And it grows them in these tubes and it even
01:27
projects the light outward. It's even grown this
01:30
vasculature to feed, to pump oxygen, to keep
01:34
these bioluminescent bacteria glowing bright.
01:38
One thing that they do is when they're actually eating,
01:41
they will keep their light on so they can see the food.
01:44
So they're very visual creatures.
01:46
And they're using their light to feed.
01:49
But when they're not feeding, they're using
01:51
their light to be able to move in a school.
01:56
A quarter of all fish species,
01:59
some time in their life, they school.
02:01
And there's all kinds of benefits to schooling.
02:03
There's safety in numbers, and it makes it harder
02:07
for a predator to really zone in on one specific fish.
02:11
What's unique about these animals is
02:13
the relationship they have with this bioluminescent
02:16
bacteria that they harvest in their eye.
02:18
Only nine species have this ability.
02:20
We do know that they do something called a blink and run.
02:23
When they want to evade a predator, they will
02:24
start swimming in one direction, blink,
02:26
and then immediately turn in the other direction.
02:28
So a predator trying to follow in the dark will lose it.
02:32
Recording this and proving this opens up the
02:35
possibility that the deep sea is filled
02:39
with billions of bioluminescent schooling fish
02:44
and us humans have just not seen this yet,
02:47
because we're not in the deep sea
02:49
with all our lights off.
Key Vocabulary:
1) an expedition: [명사] 탐험, 원정
2) a reef: [명사] 암초
3) fluorescent: [형용사] 물질이 형광성의
4) coral: [명사] 산호
5) to tug: [동사] ~ (at/on) sth (세게, 흔히 여러 번) 잡아당기다
6) literally: [부사] 문자[말] 그대로
7) to blink: [자동사] (불빛이[을]) 깜박거리다[깜박이다]
8) bioluminescent: [형용사] 생물 발광(發光)의, 생물 발광(發光)하는
9) descending: [형용사] 내려가는, 강하하는, 하향의(opp. ascending)
10) an aggregation: [명사] 집합, 집성(集成), 집적(集積)
11) to gobble: [동사] ~ sth (up/down) 게걸스럽게 먹다
12) subocular: [형용사] 눈밑의.
13) vasculature: [명사] (해부) 맥관 구조
14)
a) a school: [명사] (물고기·고래 등의) 떼
b) to school: [동사] <물고기 등이> 떼를 짓다
15) to zone in: [동사] ~에 모든 주의(관심)를 집중하다
16) unique: [형용사] 유일무이한, 독특한
17) to harvest: [동사] 수확하다
18) an ability: [명사] ~ to do sth (~을) 할 수 있음, 능력
19) to evade: [동사] (어떤 일이나 사람을) 피하다[모면하다
20) a predator: [명사] 포식자, 포식 동물

Expressions:
1) There's safety in numbers.
수가 많은 [여러 사람들이 함께 있는] 것이 안전하다

2) Open up the possibilities of...
...의 가능성을 개척하다.

Further reading:
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2019/08/flashlight-fish-glow-blue-for-schooling/
+79 -523
Quiz #: 34115
Learn about how flashlight fish use bioluminescent bacteria to glow in the dark.
Quiz by: sbergman
High Intermediate

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Quiz #: 34115
Learn about how flashlight fish use bioluminescent bacteria to glow in the dark.
Quiz by: sbergman
High Intermediate