ESL Video Quiz: Industrial Revolution

Quiz by: anaarias
Quiz #: 18172
(ESL Category: listening) Turning Points in History: the Industrial Revolution
CLIL, history, 11004

(Not exact transcription- by olgalavado)At the end
of the 18th century the majority of people lived
of agriculture in lands belonging to aristocrats,
owners of large estates. Owners and farmers were
dependent on each other in a system which remained
for centuries. A series of changes that would
affect the lives of the people for the next 150
years were taking place in cities of England and
United States. The inventors have still managed to
draw the energy of nature, of water, steam or
coal. The new machines replaced hand tools and
produce the same only more cheaply and more. Much
work was done outside the home. Buildings designed
specifically for the work were: the factories.
Mechanization was implemented in the textile mills
of England. A machine attached to a wheel could do
the work of 50 people. Many products such as food
or clothing became more affordable. Thanks to the
development of the railway and steam ships, goods
could distribute half of the world. Families left
their villages and migrated to industrial cities.
A new social class was created a new social class:
workers. Industrial entrepreneurs employed
thousands of them. They made huge profits. But not
everything was positive. Pollution caused by
factories caused black cities, the lack of housing
originated "slums". The demand for more goods of
consumption and more benefits brought labour
exploitation, including children. The worst cases
occurred in the textile mills of New England
(USA). A 10 year old girl describes their working
conditions. "I was paid US $2 a week." Working
hours are extended from 5: 00 to 19: 00. "We had
two breaks of half an hour a day." The use of
children up to 5 years old outraged the public.
Reformers and workers protested. They formed trade
unions and associations. They struggled to get the
Government´s laws which reduce working hours and
protect children. We live the technological
revolution now. We live in a "global village",
because we can connect with the world without time
or space problems

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